Breakfast & Attendee Check-in

Please check-in for the seminar and pick-up your badge and seminar materials at the Beckwith Electric Help Desk.

7:00-8:00 AM

Welcome & Introductions

8:00-8:30 AM

Generator Protection
Instructor: Wayne Hartmann

Generators are subject to internal faults, external faults and abnormal operating conditions impressed by the turbine and excitation system issues, as well as power system events the generator has no control over but must cope with. False (nuisance) trips are costly as the generators output is lost. Inability to trip due to lack of sensitivity, lack of certain protections or deficiencies in protection application may cause severe damage to generators, resulting in prolonged outage and revenue loss, plus increased system instability risk. Achieving the ideal balance of secure and dependable protection involves use of an array of elements that protect the generator for all operating modes: off-line, start up, synchronizing, various levels of power output and when challenged by system faults and anomalies.

  • Generator construction and operation
  • Grounding and connections
  • IEEE standards for generator protection
  • Generator and power system interaction
  • Generator protection element overview
    • Internal faults (in the generator zone)
    • Abnormal operating conditions
    • External faults
  • Protection Application Exploration
    • Stator Ground Fault (27TN, 59N, 59D, 64S, 67N, 87GD)
      • Exploration of stator ground fault injection sensitivity and security
    • Rotor Ground Fault/Brush Lift Off (64F, 64S)
    • Stator Phase Fault (87G)
    • Turn-to-Turn Fault
    • Phase Unbalance/Open Conductor (46)
    • Overexcitation (24)
    • Abnormal Voltage (59)
    • Field Loss (40)
    • Loss of Synchronism (78)
    • Abnormal Frequency (81-U, 81A)
    • Inadvertent Energizing (50/27)
    • Blown VT Fuses (60FL)
    • Breaker Failure/Pole Flashover (50BF)
    • Loss of Prime Mover (32)
  • Tripping considerations and sequential tripping
  • Discuss tactics to improve reliability (security & dependability)
  • Generator protection upgrade considerations
    • Lessons learned from NE Blackout (2003)
    • Redundancy concepts
  • Explore Setting, Commissioning and Event Investigation Tools


8:30-10:00 AM


10:00-10:15 AM

Generator Protection (continued)

10:15 AM-Noon


Noon-1:00 PM

Generator Protection (continued)

1:00-2:45 PM


2:45-3:00 PM

Generator NERC Compliance
Instructor: Drew Welton

As a result of the 2003 Northeast Blackout, NERC became very active and issued several prescriptive rules regarding generator protection. This was due to the incorrect and insecure performance of generator protection on large numbers of the generation fleet in the affected area. Both primary and backup protection misoperated during the event. To properly set these elements, one requires knowledge of the system and system protection the generator is connected to, plus the control settings on the generator’s automatic voltage regulator (AVR). The interdependencies of the power system’s characteristics, the power system’s protection, and AVR settings are explored along with pertinent NERC PRC rules.

  • NERC’s concern regarding generator protection security
  • NERC’s PRCs that impact generator protection
  • Power Plant protection considerations
    • Generator itself
    • Generator Step-Up Transformer
    • Auxiliary Transformers
  • Generator voltage regulator controls and limit functions (over/under excitation, volts/hertz limiters)
    • Coordination with a generator’s short time overcurrent capabilities and protective relays
  • Generator Loadability and Impact on System Backup Protection
  • Difficulty of Coordinating 51V elements with System 21 elements
  • Methodologies in PRC-025 pursuant to System Backup Protection Calculations

3:00-4:00 PM

Blackout Avoidance & Load Shedding
Instructor: Drew Welton

The 2003 Northeast Blackout was a clarifying moment for the science of system protection. The effects of improper protection application, incorrect settings and lack of event analysis information became abundantly clear in its aftermath. The event cost billions of dollars in terms of lost productivity, and imposed life safety issues on over 50 million people. NERC has issued several reports and recommendations to improve these three factors. On the bulk power systems, underfrequency and undervoltage load shedding are mitigation steps to cope with such events.

  • Discussion of Recent Major Wide Area Blackouts
  • Stability Basics and Classifications
  • Protective Elements that Tripped in the 2003 Event
  • Sources of Power System Reactive Support
  • Effects of Insufficient Reactive Support
  • Voltage Collapse as a Root Cause of Most Recent System Blackouts
  • The P-V Curve as a Means of Studying an Undervoltage Collapse Event
  • How Undervoltage Collapse Effects Generator Protection Security
  • Undervoltage Load Shedding as a Mitigation Measure

4:00-5:00 PM

Beach Volleyball Tournament
Beach Volleyball Courts Beachside behind the Sandpearl Resort

5:45-8:00 PM

PowerGrid Engineering is sponsoring the 6th Annual Beach Volleyball Tournament starting at 5:45 PM at the Beach Volleyball Courts Beachside behind the Sandpearl Resort. All skills are welcome to play volleyball or join us for snacks, drinks and networking.

RSVP for the Beach Volley Meetup.

Seminar information is subject to change. Check this website regularly to confirm seminar details. Beckwith Electric reserves the right to make changes in programs or speakers, and to cancel programs if enrollment criteria are not met. Beckwith Electric’s liability is limited to refund of registration fees.